14 Fun Facts About Washington DC: A 15-Minute Book (15-Minute Books 51)

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Earthquake lists M4. Earthquakes in the world on October 07 , M4. Earthquakes in the world on October 06 , M4. Earthquakes overview map. Earthquake lists M2. Earthquakes in the world on October 07 , M2. Earthquakes in the world on October 06 , M2. Browser Earthquake Notifications Chrome extension for earthquake-report. One frequently used teaching technique is to get learners to elaborate on the examples used during learning in order to facilitate retrieval at a later time.

The practice, however, has the potential of actually making it more difficult to retrieve the lesson material in other contexts, because knowledge tends to be especially context-bound when learners elaborate the new material with details of the context in which the material is learned Eich, When a subject is taught in multiple contexts, however, and includes examples that demonstrate wide application of what is being taught, people are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and to develop a flexible representation of knowledge Gick and Holyoak, The problem of overly contextualized knowledge has been studied in instructional programs that use case-based and problem-based learning.

In these programs, information is presented in a context of attempting to solve complex, realistic problems e. For example, fifth- and sixth-grade students may learn mathematical concepts of distance-rate-time in the context of solving a complex case involving planning for a boat trip. The findings indicate that if students learn only in this context, they often fail to transfer flexibly to new situations Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, The issue is how to promote wide transfer of the learning.

One way to deal with lack of flexibility is to ask learners to solve a specific case and then provide them with an additional, similar case; the goal is to help them abstract general principles that lead to more flexible transfer Gick and Holyoak, ; see Box 3. A third way is to generalize the case so that learners are asked to create a solution that applies not simply to a single problem, but to a whole class of related problems. For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country.

Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced e. Transfer is also enhanced by instruction that helps students represent problems at higher levels of abstraction. Helping students represent their solution strategies at a more general level can help them increase the probability of positive transfer and decrease the degree to which a previous solution strategy is used inappropriately negative transfer.

Advantages of abstract problem representations have been studied in the context of algebra word problems involving mixtures. Some students were trained with pictures of the mixtures and other students were trained with abstract tabular representations that highlighted the underlying mathematical relationships Singley and Anderson, Students who were trained on specific task components without being provided with the principles underlying the problems could do the specific tasks well, but they could not apply their learning to new problems. By contrast, the students who received abstract training showed transfer to new problems that involved analogous mathematical relations.

Research has also shown that developing a suite of representations enables learners to think flexibly about complex domains Spiro et al. Transfer is always a function of relationships between what is learned and what is tested. Many theorists argue that the amount of transfer will be a function of the overlap between the original domain of learning and the novel one.

Measuring overlap requires a theory of how knowledge is represented and conceptually mapped across domains. Examples of research. College students were presented with the following passage about a general and a fortress Gick and Holyoak, A general wishes to capture a fortress located in the center of a country. There are many roads radiating outward from the fortress. All have been mined so that while small groups of men can pass over the roads safely, a large force will detonate the mines. A full-scale direct attack is therefore impossible.

Students memorized the information in the passage and were then asked to try another task, which was to solve the following problem Gick and Holyoak, — You are a doctor faced with a patient who has a malignant tumor in his stomach. It is impossible to operate on the patient, but unless the tumor is destroyed the patient will die. There is a kind of ray that may be used to destroy the tumor. If the rays reach the tumor all at once and with sufficiently high intensity, the tumor will be destroyed, but surrounding tissue may be damaged as well.

At lower intensities the rays are harmless to healthy tissue, but they will not affect the tumor either. What type of procedure might be used to destroy the tumor with the rays, and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue? Few college students were able to solve this problem when left to their own devices. However, over 90 percent were able to solve the tumor problem when they were explicitly told to use information about the general and the fortress to help them.

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These students perceived the analogy between dividing the troops into small units and using a number of small-dose rays that each converge on the same point—the cancerous tissue. Each ray is too weak to harm tissue except at the point of convergence. Despite the relevance of the fortress problem to the tumor problem, the information was not used spontaneously—the connection between the two sets of information had to be explicitly pointed out. Whether students will transfer across domains—such as distance formulas from physics to formally equivalent biological growth problems, for example—depends on whether they conceive of the growth as occurring continuously successful transfer or in discrete steps unsuccessful transfer Bassok and Olseth, Singley and Anderson argue that transfer between tasks is a function of the degree to which the tasks share cognitive elements.

This hypothesis was also put forth very early in the development of research on transfer of identical elements, mentioned previously Thorndike and Woodworth, ; Woodworth, , but it was hard to test experimentally until there was a way to identify task components. Singley and Anderson taught students several text editors, one after another, and sought to predict transfer, defined as the savings in time of learning a new editor when it was not taught first.

They found that students learned subsequent text editors more rapidly and that the number of procedural elements shared by two text editors predicted the amount of this transfer. In fact, there was large transfer across editors that were very different in surface structures but that had common abstract structures. Singley and Anderson also found that similar principles govern transfer of mathematical competence across multiple domains when they considered transfer of declarative as well as procedural knowledge.

A study by Biederman and Shiffrar is a striking example of the benefits of abstract instruction. They studied a task that is typically difficult to learn in apprentice-like roles: how to examine day-old chicks to determine their sex. Biederman and Shiffrar found that twenty minutes of instruction on abstract principles helped the novices improve considerably see also Anderson et al.

Research studies generally provide strong support for the benefits of helping students represent their experiences at levels of abstraction that transcend the specificity of particular contexts and examples National Research Council, Examples include algebra Singley and Anderson, , computer language tasks Klahr and Carver, , motor skills e. Studies show that abstracted representations do not remain as isolated instances of events but become components of larger, related events, schemata Holyoak, ; Novick and Holyoak, Knowledge representations are built up through many opportunities for observing similarities and differences across diverse events.

Schemata are posited as particularly im-. Memory retrieval and transfer are promoted by schemata because they derive from a broader scope of related instances than single learning experiences. It is important to view transfer as a dynamic process that requires learners to actively choose and evaluate strategies, consider resources, and receive feedback.

Studies of transfer from learning one text editor to another illustrate the importance of viewing transfer from a dynamic rather than a static perspective. Researchers have found much greater transfer to a second text editor on the second day of transfer than the first Singley and Anderson, : this finding suggests that transfer should be viewed as increased speed in learning a new domain—not simply initial performance. Similarly, one educational goal for a course in calculus is how it facilitates learning of physics, but not necessarily its benefit on the first day of physics class.

Ideally, an individual spontaneously transfers appropriate knowledge without a need for prompting. Sometimes, however, prompting is necessary. With prompting, transfer can improve quite dramatically e. This method can be used to assess the amount of help needed for transfer by counting the number and types of prompts that are necessary before students are able to transfer.

Tests of transfer that use graduated prompting provide more fine-grained analysis of learning and its effects on transfer than simple one-shot assessments of whether or not transfer occurs. Transfer can be improved by helping students become more aware of themselves as learners who actively monitor their learning strategies and resources and assess their readiness for particular tests and performances.

We briefly discussed the concept of metacognition in Chapters 1 and 3 see Brown, ; Flavell, Metacognitive approaches to instruction have been shown to increase the degree to which students will transfer to new situations without the need for explicit prompting. The following examples illustrate research on teaching metacognitive skills across domains of reading, writing, and mathematics. Reciprocal teaching to increase reading comprehension Palincsar and Brown, is designed to help students acquire specific knowledge and also to learn a set of strategies for explicating, elaborating, and monitoring the understanding necessary for independent learning.

The three major components of reciprocal teaching are instruction and practice with strategies that enable students to monitor their understanding; provision, initially by a teacher, of an expert model of metacognitive processes; and a social setting that enables joint negotiation for understanding. The knowledge-acquisition strategies the students learn in working on a specific text are not acquired as abstract memorized procedures, but as skills instrumental in achieving subject-area knowledge and understanding. The instructional procedure is reciprocal in the sense that a teacher and a group of students take turns in leading the group to discuss and use strategies for comprehending and remembering text content.

A program of procedural facilitation for teaching written composition Scardamalia et al. The method prompts learners to adopt the metacognitive activities embedded in sophisticated writing strategies. The prompts help learners think about and reflect on the activities by getting them to identify goals, generate new ideas, improve and elaborate existing ideas, and strive for idea cohesion. Students in the procedural facilitation program take turns presenting their ideas to the group and detailing how they use prompts in planning to write.

The teacher also models these procedures. Thus, the program involves modeling, scaffolding, and taking turns which are designed to help students externalize mental events in a collaborative context. Alan Schoenfeld , , teaches heuristic methods for mathematical problem solving to college students. The methods are derived, to some extent, from the problem-solving heuristics of Polya Gradually, students come to ask self-regulatory questions themselves as the teacher fades out.

At the end of each of the problem-solving sessions, students and teacher alternate in characterizing major themes by analyzing what they did and why. The recapitulations highlight the generalizable features of the critical decisions and actions and focus on strategic levels rather than on the specific solutions see also White and Frederickson, An emphasis on metacognition can enhance many programs that use new technologies to introduce students to the inquiry methods and other tools that are used by professionals in the workplace see Chapter 8.

The value of using video to model important metacognitive learning procedures has also been shown to help learners analyze and reflect on models Bielaczyc et al. All of these strategies engage learners as active participants in their learning by focusing their attention on critical elements, encouraging abstraction of common themes or procedures principles , and evaluating their own progress toward understanding. But even the initial learning phase involves transfer because it is based on the knowledge that people bring to any learning situation; see Box 3.

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First, students may have knowledge that is relevant to a learning situation that is not activated. Second, students may misinterpret new information because of previous knowledge they use to construct new understandings. Third, students may have difficulty with particular school teaching practices that conflict with practices in their community.

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This section discusses these three implications. The importance of building on previous experiences is relevant for adults as well as children. Math was necessary for my mother in a much more sense than it was for me. Unable to read or write, my mother routinely took rectangles of fabric and, with few measurements and no patterns, cut them and turned them into perfectly fitted clothing for people…I realized that the mathematics she was using was beyond my comprehension.

Moreover, although mathematics was a subject matter that I studied and taught, for her it was basic to the operation of her understanding. What she was doing was math in the sense that it embodied order, pattern, relations, and measurement. It was math because she was breaking a whole into smaller parts and constructing a new whole out of most of the pieces, a new whole that had its own style, shape, size, and that had to fit a specific person.

Mistakes in her math entailed practical consequences, unlike mistakes in my math. The structure of many courses would fail to provide the kinds of support that could help her make contact with her rich set of informal knowledge. The literature on learning and transfer suggests that this is an important question to pursue. By the time children begin school, most have built a considerable knowledge store relevant to arithmetic. They have experiences of adding and subtracting numbers of items in their everyday play, although they lack the symbolic representations of addition and subtraction that are taught in school.

Without specific guidance from teachers, students may fail to connect everyday knowledge to subjects taught in school. Sometimes new information will seem incomprehensible to students, but this feeling of confusion can at least let them identify the existence of a problem see, e. A more problematic situation occurs when people construct a coherent for them representation of information while deeply misunderstanding the new information. The Fish Is Fish scenario is relevant to many additional attempts to help students learn new information.

This force is exerted only so long as the ball is in contact with the hand, but is not present when the ball is in flight. Students claim that this force diminishes as the ball ascends and is used up by the time the ball reaches the top of its trajectory. These explanations fail to take account of the fact that the only forces being exerted on the ball while it is traveling through the air are the gravitational force caused by the earth and the drag force due to air resistance. For similar examples, see Mestre, A study of how plants make food was conducted with students from elementary school through college.

It probed understanding of the role of soil and photosynthesis in plant growth and of the primary source of food in green plants Wandersee, Many of the students in this study, especially those in the higher grades, had already studied photosynthesis. Yet formal instruction had done little to overcome their erroneous prior beliefs.

Clearly, presenting a sophisticated explanation in science class, without also probing. Most children bring to their school mathematics lessons the idea that numbers are grounded in the counting principles and related rules of addition and subtraction. This knowledge works well during the early years of schooling. However, once students are introduced to rational numbers, their assumptions about mathematics can hurt their abilities to learn.

Consider learning about fractions. One cannot count things to generate a fraction. Formally, a fraction is defined as the division of one cardinal number by another: this definition solves the problem that there is a lack of closure of the integers under division. To complicate matters, some number-counting principles do not apply to fractions. Rational numbers do not have unique successors; there is an infinite number of numbers between any two rational numbers. Neither the nonverbal nor the verbal counting principle maps to a tripartite symbolic representations of fractions—two cardinal numbers X and Y separated by a line.

Related mapping problems have been noted by others e. Overall, early knowledge of numbers has the potential to serve as a barrier to learning about fractions— and for many learners it does. Often, students construct understandings like those noted above. Strategies for such teaching are discussed in more detail in Chapters 6 and 7. Prior knowledge is not simply the individual learning that students bring to the classroom, based on their personal and idiosyncratic experiences e. Prior knowledge is also not only a generic set of experiences attributable to developmental stages through which learners may have passed i.

Prior knowledge also includes the kind of knowledge that learners acquire because of their social roles, such as those connected with race, class, gender, and their culture and ethnic affiliations Brice-Heath, , ; Lave, ; Moll and Whitmore, ; Moll et al. School failure may be partly explained by the mismatch between what students have learned in their home cultures and what is required of them in school see Allen and Boykin, ; Au and Jordan, ; Boykin and Tom, ; Erickson and Mohatt, Everyday family habits and rituals can either be reinforced or ignored in schools, and they can produce different responses from teachers Heath, How teachers interpret this reticence or resistance has consequences for how intelligent or academically capable they judge students and their instructional approaches toward them.

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For example, a primary school teacher is helping students to understand fractional parts by using what she thinks is a commonplace reference. Most African Americans are likely to serve sweet potato pie for holiday dinners. In fact, one of the ways that African American parents explain pumpkin pie to their children is to say that it is Something like sweet potato pie. Caroline then created her own catalog organized by north polar distance.

Caroline would go over her notes and write formal observations, which she called minding the heavens. Caroline contributed significantly to the field of astronomy. Caroline frequently used a small Newtonian sweeper that was gifted by her brother William to study the sky on her own. This was Caroline's first accomplishment and first experience in mathematics.

Caroline calculated the positions of her brother's and her own discoveries and combined them into a publication. An interesting fact is that she never learned the multiplication tables. She used to carry a table on a sheet of paper in her pocket. Caroline's brother William gave her a small telescope with which she started hunting for comets. This was the main focus of many astronomers. Between and Caroline discovered eight comets. In subsequent years, Caroline devoted her time to catalog every discovery she and her brother William had made. But this did not hinder John and I from remaining the most affectionate friends, and many a half or whole holiday he was allowed to spend with me, was dedicated to making experiments in chemistry, where generally all boxes, tops of tea-canisters, pepper-boxes, teacups served for the necessary vessels, and the sand-tub furnished the matter to be analysed.

I only had to take care to exclude water, which would have produced havoc on my carpet. William felt sympathy for his sister. When he moved to Bath, England, he needed a housekeeper so he took her with him. An accomplished professional musician and a chorus director, William gave Caroline voice lessons, she became the most prominent soprano in Bath. Astronomy was a hobby for William, something that he supported with all his spare time. He created powerful telescopes flourishing in England as a great telescope maker. King George III gave William a pension so William could quit his job as conductor and focus on astronomy and the production of fine telescopes.

At first, Caroline did not share her brother's passion for the science. William started training her in mathematics. After a while, Caroline began to help William with his telescope business. In the beginning, she only spent long hours grinding and polishing the mirrors they used to collect light from distant objects. Soon she became more and more interested in telescopes and astronomy, and at the age of 32, Caroline became William's apprentice. Often, when William would leave on business, Caroline would take over in his place.

Quickly visitors to the shop began to recognize her authority. King George III then gave her a pension of fifty pounds. This was the very first time that a woman was recognized for a scientific position and on her own merit. The King was an extensive patron of William's work. During William's visit to Germany, Caroline had her first big breakthrough: she discovered a comet. When William married, he spent less time at the observatory. Caroline, although grieving for her lost friend and partner, carried on her work as a prominent astronomer.

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Before William's death, Caroline found seven more comets. When William died, Caroline finished her career as an observational astronomer. Then Caroline returned to Hanover and lived with her younger brother, Dietrich. Before Caroline's death, she cataloged every discovery that she and William had made. She sent the records to the scientific community in England. Germany honored Caroline as well. Caroline herself wrote the poetic inscription that reads on her tombstone: "The eyes of her, who is glorified here below, turned to the starry heavens. Up to this date, two of the astronomical catalogs published by Caroline Herschel is still in use.

On the celebration of her ninety-sixth birthday, Caroline was awarded the King of Prussia's Gold Medal of Science for her lifelong achievements. It was an honor to be seen with Caroline in public. Caroline was the first woman who was officially recognized in a scientific position. She was also the first woman to receive honorary membership into Britain's prestigious Royal Society. Several of the comets that Caroline Lucretia Herschel discovered during her lifetime bear her name. The lunar crater C. Herschel and the asteroid Lucretia were named after her. In marine biology circles, Jeanne is known as the "Mother of Aquariophily.

She was the eldest child of a humble shoemaker. Jeanne had a basic education, a very little knowledge more than how to read and write. When Jeanne was 18 years old, she walked all the way to Paris covering a distance of over kilometers to become a dressmaker. In Paris, she became the assistant of a society dressmaker. She found fame when she designed the wedding gown for Princess Caroline, the future Duchesse de Berry. Princess Caroline was a Sicilian princess who married the nephew of the French king in It was through the commission of this wedding gown that Jeanne met James Power, a rich English nobleman, and merchant.

They got married in in Messina, Sicily, where they lived for more than 20 years. She was a self-taught naturalist who traveled around Sicily recording and describing its flora and fauna, collecting specimens of minerals, fossils, butterflies, and shells. Argo, a species s imilar to hermit crabs , and other animals. In , Jeanne was the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.

Jeanne's invention of the aquarium is perhaps her greatest contribution to marine biology. In a shipwreck in , a major part of her collections, records, and other scientific materials was lost. Even though Jeanne continued to write after , with all her work gone to the bottom of the ocean, she discontinued her research. In , Jeanne Villepreux-Power invented the first glass aquarium.

Her invention was designed to help Jeanne with her observations and experiments on the marine species. By using the aquarium as a tool for her research, Jeanne became the first to discover that A. Argo produces its own shell rather than obtaining the shell from another organism. Jeanne reasoned that the tiny organisms that accompanied the egg mass contained within the shell of A. Argo were males of the species. After inventing her first aquarium, Jeanne developed two other aquarium designs: a glass apparatus placed within a cage for use in shallow water and a cagelike aquarium capable of lowering its contents to various depths.

Jeanne Villepreux-Power died on January 25, Sadly, Jeanne was forgotten for more than a century after her death. It was not until much later, in , that her work was rediscovered and her name was given to a major crater on Venus discovered by the Magellan probe. Joy Mangano is an American entrepreneur and the inventor of the self-wringing Miracle Mop. She regularly appears on the U. Joy graduated with a degree in business administration from Pace University in Joy was married to Tony Miranne from to The couple had three children: Christie, Robert, and Jaqueline Miranne.

The Miracle Mop was her first invention followed by others including:. Other products in this line include smaller duffel bags, portable dressers, briefcases, and pet carriers. The sets come with a zippered, reversible duvet cover and sheets that are fixed to the bed skirt for easy removal and cleaning. In , Joy Mangano invented the Miracle Mop, a self-wringing plastic mop that can be easily squeezed out without the need of making the user's hands wet.

Russell film starring Jennifer Lawrence. Harriet Williams Russell Strong was an American social activist, inventor, conservationist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Harriet is best known for her design and invention for a water irrigation system. Her family moved twice, first to California in and later to Carson City, Nevada in , where Harriet met Charles Lyman Strong, her future husband. Harriet married Charles Strong at the age of Charles had made his fortune in banking, publishing, and mining.

Life in the ranch was too boring for Charles so tried to look for another chance in the mining business. Unfortunately, he failed and found himself in debt instead. Charles borrowed against Rancho del Fuerte, increasing his debt even more. Desperate and disappointed after a number of business ventures failures Charles committed suicide in Upon Charles death and for the next ten years, Harriet had to fight to keep control of the ranch, find means of earning money, and deal with her husband's debt at the same time she was raising four daughters.


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Harriet came upon walnuts when searching for a stable crop. Walnuts require constant moisture so Harriet designed an irrigation system for her walnut grove. Thanks to her efforts, Harriet was able to pay off her husband's debt and support herself and her four daughters. Once Harriet was free from her husband's debt, she continued to push forward with her ideas for water irrigation.

She became an advocate for water conservation and in , she went before Congress and presented a plan that she had designed to dam the Colorado River. For the last 17 years of her life, Harriet was an advocate of women's rights. She traveled to numerous places speaking on behalf of women's education and the push to get women more economically secure.

Harriet was awarded two medals for her inventions by the World'sColumbian Exposition in Chicago, in Harriet Williams Russell Strong was a talented woman. She was a talented musical composer and published a number of songs and a book of musical sketches. Harriet Williams Russell Strong died in a car accident on a trip back to her ranch in September She accomplished amazing things throughout her life.

Raising four daughters on her own was not an easy task. She also maintained a ranch, patented five inventions, advocated both water conservation and women's rights. Yvonne Madelaine Claeys Brill was a Canadian-born American aerospace engineer rocket scientist who pioneered the electrothermal hydrazine thruster. She invented the propulsion system that keeps communication satellites from falling out of orbit.

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Yvonne and her two siblings were first-generation Canadians from parents who had emigrated from Belgium. Yvonne was the first one in her family to go to college. When Yvonne was a child she was very curious. She loved science. Her father wanted Yvonne to open up a little shop in town. Yvonne graduated with a degree in science. After graduation, in , Yvonne accepted a job offer from the Douglas Aircraft Company in California.

She moved to the United States then. There Yvonne met William Brill. They married within a year, in , and moved to the East Coast, first to Connecticut, then to New Jersey. Yvonne managed to balance her family life and her career very well. She followed William, who was a research chemist, to wherever his job would take them. Yvonne always managed to get job offers in a field dominated by men. In the beginning, Yvonne worked part-time jobs so that she could care for their three young children.

Yvonne Brill is believed to be the only woman in the United States who was researching into rocket science in the mids. Yvonne encountered her fair share of prejudice and discrimination. She was paid a salary below that of men. For the last twenty years of her life, Yvonne C. In part, Yvonne's reason for going into rocket engineering was that virtually no other women were doing so. During her lifetime, Yvonne C. Yvonne C. Brill developed the concept for a new rocket engine. She called it hydrazine resistojet. Resistojet is a method of spacecraft propulsion that provides thrust by heating a non-reactive fluid.

In , Yvonne Brill designed and invented the hydrazine resistojet propulsion system. Yvonne Brill patented her propulsion system for satellites in She received U. Patent number 3,, for her invention. The first communications satellite using Yvonne's invention was launched in Her invention is still being used by satellites that handle worldwide phone service, long-range television broadcasts, and other tasks. Yvonne Brill's invention became a standard in the industry.

It has brought millions of dollars of increased revenue for commercial communications satellite owners. Brill died of complications of breast cancer in Princeton, New Jersey on March 27, , at the age of Hertha Ayrton is best known for her work on sand ripples and electric arcs. Phoebe Sarah Marks adopted the name Hertha in her teenage years, after the ancient Germanic earth goddess.

She was the third of eight children of a Jewish watchmaker and jeweler who had emigrated from Poland to escape the pogroms. Her father died when she was seven, leaving her pregnant mother and her six brothers in poverty. Marks was of the idea that women needed a better not worse education than men, because "women have the harder battle to fight in the world.

When Sarah was nine years old, her mother allowed her to go to London to live with her aunt Marion Harzog, who ran a school and had invited Sarah to go and study with her cousins who introduced her to mathematics. At 16, Sarah was working as a governess in order to support herself and her studies which she was determined to advance further.

She passed the Cambridge University Examination for Women in with honors in both English and maths. However, the University of Cambridge did not give degrees to women at the time, so she received her degree in science through the University of London in , instead. Hertha was known for her fiery personality and for pioneering women's education and the first residential college for women established in England. Hertha was a close friend of Marie Curie. She famously wrote: " Errors are notoriously hard to kill, but an error that ascribes to a man what was actually the work of a woman has more lives than a cat" after Marie's discovery of radium was attributed to her husband.

Hertha also conducted a vigorous campaign in the press. The writer was a keen supporter of education for women and she took an interest in Hertha's efforts to fund a place at Girton College. Hertha Ayrton earned money by teaching and embroidery. In , Hertha began attending evening classes at Finsbury Technical College where she met her future husband, Professor William Edward Ayrton who was a pioneer in electrical engineering and physics education and a fellow of the Royal Society.

After marrying William Ayrton in , Hertha began assisting him with experiments in physics and electricity. Hertha also began her own research on the characteristics of the electric arc. Hertha wrote articles on her research for The Electrician. In her articles, she explained that the problems with the electric arc were the result of oxygen coming into contact with the carbon rods used to create the arc.

A few hours later, she was elected the first women member of the IEE. The next woman was admitted to the IEE in It was not before the late 19th century that Hertha Ayrton's work in the field of electrical engineering was widely recognized not only in England but also internationally. In , Hertha Ayrton developed a device to blow away poisonous gases from the trenches, keeping soldiers fit. More than , of the fans were used on the Western Front. Other inventions include mathematical dividers, arc lamps and electrodes, and propulsion of air. Hertha's first major invention was the line-divider.

Her invention was an engineering drawing instrument for dividing a line into any number of equal parts and for enlarging and reducing figures. The primary use for line-divider was for artists for enlarging and diminishing. However, it was also widely used by architects and engineers. Hertha's invention was shown at the Exhibition of Women's Industries receiving significant press attention. In , Hertha patented her first major invention: the line-divider, an instrument used for dividing lines into a number of equal parts.

Other patents include five on mathematical dividers, 13 on arc lamps and electrodes, and the rest on the propulsion of air. In , Hertha began researching highly luminous and intensely hot discharges of electricity between two electrodes. Arc lamps were used for public lighting at the time but they would flicker and hiss on the streets. Hertha's work led to fixing this issue by binding the arc together to form one constant whole.

Hertha Ayrton has received many awards and honors in her lifetime and after her death. Hertha's certificate seems to have been the first in the history of the Society to be submitted in favor of a woman, and 41 years were to elapse before the next. Hertha Ayrton is still the only woman to have received this medal. In , an English Heritage blue plaque was unveiled at 41 Norfolk Square in Paddington, where Herta lived, to commemorate her. Hertha Ayton died of blood poisoning caused by an insect bite on August 23, , in Bexhill-on-sea, Sussex, England.

She was Sarah Breedlove, known as Madame C. Walker , was born in to a family of slaves on a plantation in Louisiana. Sarah Breedlove became an orphan at the age of seven after both her parents died from yellow fever. Aged 33, Sarah started her business career selling the first hair products known as Madame C. Walker Vegetable Shampoo. Her line of hair treatment, maintenance, scalp stimulation, and beauty products mainly targeted at black women focused on the need for a healthy and clean scalp, something not always possible due to living conditions back then.

She recruited 25, black women by the early s from North and Central America, and the Caribbean as door-to-door beauty consultants. As her hair loss increased rapidly, Madame C. Walker developed a formula mixing petroleum —similar to vaseline,— sulfur, and a little perfume to make it smell better. She used this formula to treat the severe scalp disease, a common disease of the time, which was causing the hair loss.

After the successful results, Madame Walker started bottling the formula and selling it door-to-door to other African-American women suffering from the same disease. Madame C. Walker did not patent any products herself.

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The Madame C. The company was successful and it became famous for its African-American cosmetics and hair care products invented and developed by Madame C. Walker Company was considered the most widely known and financially successful African-American owned business of the early twentieth century. In , the Madame C. Walker Company ceased operations. An estimate of around 40, African-American worked for Madame C.

Walker over the years that the Madame C. Walker was active. A pioneer of the modern cosmetics industry, Madame C. In , Sundial Brands launched a new line called Madam C. Walker Beauty Culture which is sold exclusively in Sephora stores and at Sephora. I want to say to every Negro woman present, don't sit down and wait for the opportunities to come. Get up and make them! A remarkable woman, who fought against racism, she used her wealth to support African-American institutions, the black YMCA , helped people with their mortgages, donated to orphan and senior citizens homes, she wanted to found a school for black girls in Nigeria although she was not able to do it.

She thought educating young girls and women would make a difference in society. Walker, who is considered one of the most successful African-American entrepreneurs throughout history , passed away at the age of 51 from kidney failure in She is known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.

She wrote the instructions for the first computer program in the mids. Annabella left Lord Byron when Ada was two months old and later they legally separated. Lord Byron left England and never came back. He died in Greece when Ada was eight years old. Ada never knew him personally. Ada's mother insisted that her daughter should learn mathematics and science. Ada was also educated in music and French, though not in poetry. However, she had little contact with her daughter. Ada was brought up by her maternal grandmother and servants.

Ada's grandmother died when she was seven. Ada's mother demanded from her daughter that she should work hard. If she thought her young daughter had not worked hard enough she would punish her with long periods of isolation. Even though there were no places for girls in the United Kingdom's universities, girls from wealthy, aristocratic families could get a high-level education by private tutors. Ada was privately educated by tutors and also self-educated. Augusts De Morgan, the first professor of mathematics at the University of London, helped Ada in her advanced studies.

When her husband has created an earl in Ada became Countess of Lovelace. Then she became to be known as Ada Lovelace. It is the language of unseen relations between things. But to use and apply that language, we must be able fully to appreciate, to feel, to seize the unseen, the unconscious. In , when Ada was 17, she met Charles Babbage. Despite the age difference, Ada and Babbage were intellectual peers.

Ada corresponded with Charles Babagge for two decades.

Ada's work in mathematics led to the development of the calculations that early machines such as the Analytical Engine could produce. Ada Lovelace often considered her approach to mathematics as more of a poetical science from an analytical perspective. Perhaps despite her mother's efforts to not let poetry into Ada's life had failed. Ada knew that the first computer needed to have a procedure installed that could help it be able to produce accurate calculations if such computer was expected to work right.

Ada Lovelace created the first well-defined instructions that were necessary for the Analytical Machine to be able to function properly. Ada Lovelace is widely considered to be the first author of a computer program despite she lived a century before the invention of the modern computer. In , Babagge asked Ada to translate an article that had been published by an Italian military engineer regarding the operations of the Analytical Engine. Ada then not only translated the document but also went on adding her own notes to the process so that they could be effectively added to the programming.

Ada's notes ended up being three times longer than the actual translation. She also corrected some errors she found in some of Babagge's calculations that were included in the document. Ada was then able to take this vision to see that computer programs could be expanded to do much more than just make basic calculation or crunch numbers. She demonstrated how to calculate Bernoulli Numbers. Ada proved this by diagraming the computations showing that the Engine could be used for practical and scientifical purposes.

She also said that one day the Engine could compose elaborated pieces of music. Ada basically predicted many uses for computers today. Way ahead of her time, Ada Lovelace had essentially created what today we call a computer algorithm. The Engine was finally never built.

Ada's translation, however, was published and very well received by the scientific community. In , people began to build the modern computers, so Ada's work was re-published. In the way, it has happened many times when a woman inventor invented something extraordinary and way ahead of her time, there is some controversy over giving Ada Lovelace the credit for these specific inventions: algorithms, the first computer program, and the Analytical Engine.

In a essay, her involvement in these inventions was questioned. The essay claimed that Ada's notes had actually been created by Babbage at least three years before she published them. Others have questioned her mathematical ability and some others have gone as far as to claim that Ada Lovelace had very little influence on the computer at all. Of course, all these claims come from men. Sadly, even today in the 21st century. For the skeptics, we can say that only history really knows.

We understand that for some it is hard to believe that these fundamental inventions that influence all of us every day in some way were invented by a woman in the s. Tragically, the extraordinary Ada Lovelace died from uterine cancer too young at the age of 36 in London on November 27, Ada was buried in the graveyard of the Church of St.

Mary Magdalene in Nottingham, England. In her time, people called Ada the Enchantress of Numbers. She called herself an analyst and metaphysician. Patricia Bath is pioneer ophthalmologist, inventor, and academic who is known for inventing a tool and procedure for the removal of cataracts using a laser beam called the Laserphaco probe.

Patricia was born on November 4, , in Harlem, New York. Patricia was encouraged by her family to pursue academic interests. Her father, who was a former Merchant Marine and an occasional newspaper columnist, taught Patricia about the wonders of travel and the value of exploring new cultures. Patricia Bath describes herself as being a curious child. At the age of 16, Patricia became one of only a few students to attend a cancer research workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Patricia graduated from high school in only two years. Then she headed to Hunter College, where she earned a bachelor's degree in Patricia attended Howard University to pursue a medical degree. Patricia Bath graduated with honors from Howard in She accepted an internship at Harlem Hospital shortly afterward.

The following year, Patricia also began pursuing a fellowship in ophthalmology at Columbia University. Patricia Bath. Patricia moved to California in to work as an assistant professor of surgery at both Charles R. In , Patricia Bath co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, which established that eyesight is a basic human right. In the same year, Dr. Patricia Bath is a strong advocate of telemedicine, which uses technology to provide medical services in remote areas. In , Dr. Bath began working on what it became her most well-known invention.

It took Dr. Patricia Bath several years working long hours in the lab until two or three in the morning to develop her invention. Finally, one long rainy night in , the Laserphaco probe came through. The Laserphaco Probe allowed Patricia Bath to help restore the sight of individuals who had been blind for more than 30 years. On December 18, , Dr. Bath filed a patent for her groundbreaking discovery becoming the first African-American woman doctor to receive a medical patent. Bath also holds patents in Japan, Canada, and Europe. In , Howard University name Dr.

Today, Dr. In recognition for her advocacy for the blind, President Barack Obama appointed Dr. Bath to his commission for Digital Accessibility for The Blind in To celebrate the 50th anniversary of Dr. Bath by endowing the Patricia E. Bath MD scholarship for a woman medical student, a scholarship that she sponsors. She was a prolific American inventor of machines and mechanisms for industrial and everyday purposes.

This triggered young Margaret to invent a safety device for the loom that was later adopted by other Manchester mills. She completed her invention within a few weeks. She was too young to think about patenting the invention. Due to health problems, Margaret could not continue working at the cotton mill. In her teens and early 20s, Margaret held several jobs in home repairing, photography, and engraving. In , Margaret Knight invented the machine that folded and glued paper to form the flat-bottomed brown paper bags.

First, as it was usual at the time, she built a wooden model of her invention. However, in order to patent the device she needed a working iron model to apply for a patent. He stole her design and quickly went to patent the device. Margaret Knight was highly inventive from an early age. When she was only 12 years old, Margaret invented a safety device for controlling shuttles in powered textile looms. In , she invented an attachment for paper-bag-folding machines that allowed the production of square-bottomed bags.

After working to improve her invention she patented it in Margaret received patents for a dress and skirt shield in , a clasp for robes in , and a spit in She also received six patents for machines used in the manufacturing of shoes. She also invented several devices relating to rotary engines, patented between and She was one of the most productive women inventors with 87 patents to her credit. Margaret Eloise Knight died at the Framingham Hospital of pneumonia and gallstones at the age of 76 on October 12, She never married.

Although she was a great prolific inventor, she failed to profit much from her work. When Margaret Knight died she was honored by a local obituary that called her a woman Edison. Her original paper-bag-making machine is in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D. Josephine Garis-Cochrane was a wealthy woman who hosted dinner parties often. She wanted a machine that could wash dishes faster than her servants without breaking them. She had a sister, Irene.

Josephine's maternal grandfather, John Fitch, was awarded a patent for his steamboat invention. Josephine went to a private school until the school burnt down. Josephine moved to Shelbyville, Illinois to live with her sister Irene. There, she met William Cochran who was a prosperous dry goods merchant and Democratic Party Politician.

The couple had two children, Hallie, a son who died at the age of two, and Katharine. In , the Cochrans moved into a mansion where they began to throw dinner parties using expensive heirloom china dating from the s.